There are many different types of sexual assault and rape. They should all be taken very seriously. Below, you can find different types of sexual violence, sexual assault and rape:
Rape: Forced sexual intercourse, including vaginal, anal, or oral penetration. Penetration maybe by a body part or an object. Rape victims may be forced through threats or physical means.In about 8 out of 10 rapes, perpetrators don’t use any weapon other than physical force.Anyone may be a victim of rape: Women or men, adults or children, straight or gay.
Acquaintance rape: Rape imposed by someone that the victim knows, e.g. a friend,date, acquaintance etc
Stranger Rape: Occurs when there has been no prior contact between a perpetrator and survivor. There are 3 major categories:
Child sexual abuse: Sexual contact by force, trickery, or bribery where there is an imbalance in age, size, power, or knowledge.
Dating and domestic violence: Any act, attempt, or threat of force by a family member or intimate partner against another family member. Dating and domestic violence occurs in all
socioeconomic, educational, racial, and age groups. Issues of power and control are at the heart of family violence. The perpetrator uses acts of violence and a series of behaviours to gain power and control.
Drug facilitated assault: When drugs or alcohol compromise an individual’s ability to consent to sexual activity. Perpetrators use drugs and alcohol to minimize the victim’s ability to resist and their memories of the assault. Alcohol remains the most commonly used substance in sexual crimes. However, perpetrators use other substances, too, including: Rohypnol, GHB, GBL, etc.
Hate Crime: The victimization of an individual based on that individual’s race, religion, national origin, ethnic identification, gender, or sexual orientation. Any targeted group can
experience violence, rape, and sexual assault as a form of hate crime.
Incest: Sexual contact between persons who are so closely related that their marriage is illegal (e.g., parents/children, brothers/sisters uncles/aunts and nieces/nephews, etc.). This usually takes the form of an older family member sexually abusing a child or adolescent. Many experts consider incest to be a particularly damaging form of sexual abuse. This is because individuals whom the victim trusts and depends on are the perpetrators. In addition, there is often a lack of familial support. There is even sometimes pressure to keep silent from family members because they fear the family will disintegrate if the truth comes out.
Male sexual assault: Male victims of sexual assault are an often forgotten population being unseen, neglected, and underserved.
Partner rape: sexual acts committed without a person’s consent and/or against a person’s will when the perpetrator is the individual’s current partner or previous partner (married or
not), or co-habitator. Many times, there is not any physical violence associated with sexual assault, but that doesn’t mean that it does not happen. Many survivors also experience
battering or severe physical violence along with sexual violence.
Sexual exploitation by a helping professional: Sexual contact of any kind between a helping professional (doctor, therapist, teacher, priest, professor, police officer, lawyer, etc.) and a client/patient.
Sexual harassment: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. With harassment, submission to or rejection of
such conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s work or school performance. It also creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work or school environment.
Hostile environment: When unwelcome, severe and persistent sexual conduct on the part of a perpetrator creates an uncomfortable and hostile environment (e.g. jokes,
lewd postures, leering, inappropriate touching, rape, etc.). This type of harassment constitutes up to 95% of all sexual harassment cases.
Quid pro quo: When a perpetrator makes conditions of employment contingent on the victim providing sexual favours.
Stalking: Occurs when an individual follows a pattern of behaviour that leaves someone else feeling afraid, nervous, harassed, or in danger. This presents itself as unwanted contact like calling or texting repeatedly or following the victim around and lurking on them
Rape is a traumatising experience, and it is never the victim’s fault. Being a victim of rape has nothing to do with what someone was wearing or where they were. If one is a victim of rape in Kenya, there are laws to ensure that the victim gets justice for the injustice perpetrated upon him/her by the perpetrator. However, without taking proper steps after the ordeal, the victim may end up losing the case due to lack of evidence or poor defence on the side of the prosecution.
So what does one do?
Do not take a bath or change clothes as these two actions may alter the evidence that the police may use for prosecution purposes.
Report the incident to a police station immediately. At the police station, you will be given a form that should be filled by a qualified medical officer.
Report to the nearest health facility. While it may be very difficult, it is important to be open about the ordeal. At the health facility one is entitled to:
All the above services are FREE of charge. Most of the interventions listed above have a time limit of efficacy, hence reporting early is key. Optimally, a rape is reported immediately after when the physical exam might result in forensic evidence.
Remember to reach out to family and friends for support. Do not suffer alone
If you are a victim of gender based violence, sexual assault or rape, do not suffer alone. You can contact Gender-based Violence Recovery Center (GVRC), which is a non-profit, non-partisan; charitable trust of the Nairobi Women’s Hospital (NWH). NWH a private institution that specialises in obstetrics and gynaecology services and seeks to provide holistic care to women and their families, including emotional, physical, sexual and psychological abuse.
Contact Gender based Violence Revovery Center:
Emergency cases, hotline: +254709667000 or +254719638006
Those engaging in cross-generational sex and commercial sex.
Yes, the risk of contracting HIV is reduced through the following methods:
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There is not yet a definite cure that can make HIV go away but there are drugs (antiretroviral drugs-ARVs) available freely at various government hospitals which slow disease progression, remove symptoms and give the infected persons a longer fully productive life.
As a special group, their rights are protected by law through the HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act (2006). However, they face a lot of stigma associated with myths surrounding the disease. They are often isolated, judged and even denied access to basic services. By sharing knowledge, we help end stigma and enable them live a full healthy and productive life. It is their role too to seek regular medical care, exercise and maintain a good nutrition for longer positive life.
To read more about HIV and how to get tested.Click here
The best way to practice safe sex is by using condoms, as condoms can prevent contracting sexually transmitted infections and diseases (STIs/STDs), while also preventing pregnancy. However, there is also the option of using other contraceptives such as birth control.
Safe sex is also a matter of feeling emotionally safe. To read more on how to practice emotionally safe sex, Click here(consent)
The safest method one can use to ensure that they are sexually protected involves them using a condom. Condoms are an effective barrier towards sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS although not 100% effective as abstinence, as the condom can break during intercourse. This is rare, though.
Condoms don’t protect against the risk of getting infections like Human Papillomavirus (HPV) that cause genital warts and potentially cervical cancer. This is due to the fact that the virus can be found on the skin that isn’t protected by the condom.
Condoms are also good in preventing pregnancy in comparison to use of contraceptives. This is because they form a physical barrier that prevents sperms from entering the vagina
Other benefits of the condom is that;
There are different types of contraceptives – among them are:
Most of the methods are available at all health centres. Talk to your doctor about what contraceptive might be right for you.
Some like condoms are available easily in almost all chemists and kiosks. Other more radical methods such as tubal ligation (female sterilization) require a trained health specialist in a hospital set up only.
Emergency pills or ‘morning after pills’ are drugs readily available at all hospitals, health centres and chemists. They are after sex to prevent a pregnancy from developing. Instances when taken include: After a rape incidence, unprotected sex or contraceptive failure e.g. burst condom during intercourse, missed birth control pills.
Note that the emergency pill should not be used on a regular basis but only in case of emergency since they contain a high amount of hormones which is harmful for your body. The emergency pill should not be abused as every-day contraceptives.
No. There’s no evidence that long-term use of the birth control pill interferes with fertility.
Currently in Kenya there is no specific legislation on the age of starting the use of contraception. However, the legal age for consent stands at 18 years, therefore indirectly guiding the age of onset. Despite this, condoms are easily available for teenagers at designated public places and pharmacies.
There are legislative efforts trying to fix the age and set a legal frameworks to contraception acquisition. Notable was the Reproductive Health Care Bill 2014. If such a law is passed and the age for contraception access it lowered, safe sex among teenagers should be enhanced.
According to the Reproductive Health Care Bill 2014, parental consent is not mandatory in the provision of reproductive health care services to adolescents who seek it, including contraception.
Step by step:
Step 1: Always check the expiration date on the wrapper – if it is too old it might break!
Step 2: When the penis is erect, it is time to put the condom on.
Step 3: Open the wrapper and take out the condom. Be careful when handling the condom so it doesn’t break. Don’t pull on it too hard.
Step 4: The condom can only be rolled on in one direction – so make sure it is the right way up. The rim should be on the outside so it looks like a little hat.
Step 5: Pinch the little air filled tip of the condom, thereby letting out the air and leaving room for any potential sperm that is ejected during ejacutation.
While still pinching the tip of the condom, place it on the tip of the penis
Step 6: Keep pinching the tip of the condom with one hand, unroll the condom down the shaft of the penis with the other hand. The condom has to unroll all the way down to the part of the penis closest to the body (the root).
Step 7: You are now ready to have safe sex
* Note: If the condom is broken you can’t use it.
In Kenya, the consensual age to have sex by law is 18 years old. When you have sex for the first time, it is highly important that both you and your partner feel safe and that the sex is consensual. To read more about consent,Click here
To consent to something means saying ‘yes’ or agreeing to something. Informed consent means making an informed voluntary decision. When consenting, both persons should feel that they have equal power in the relationship and is not pressured to consent by the other person.
Consent includes knowing and respecting one’s own boundaries as well as the boundaries of others. Sexual consent means both partners agree to the sexual activity and understand what they’re agreeing to. Sexual consent is about a person’s right to make their own choice about sexual activity.
Consent is the foundation of a sexual relationship. Consent must be given for every sexual activity, every time.
Important Points about Sexual Consent:
Sexuality is an expression of who we are that involves the mind and the body and includes all the feelings, thoughts, and behaviours associated with being male or female, being attracted and being in love, as well as being in relationships that include sexual intimacy and sexual activity. Sexuality is a broad term and it includes: Sensuality, sex, gender, sexual orientation, sexual identity and sexual behavior.
Abortion has been a sensitive and divisive topic in today’s society. In Kenya for example, prolife and prochoice campaigners keep fighting, the first group arguing for the protection of the unborn foetus and the latter group advocating for the autonomy of pregnant women. Abortion has also received a lot of criticism from the religious groups.
Abortion is the removal of an embryo or foetus from the mother before it can independently survive usually, less than 28 weeks
Abortion can either be characterized as;
According to the new constitution (2010) Article 26 (4), abortion is not permitted unless, in the opinion of a trained health professional*, there is need for emergency treatment, or the life or health of a mother is in danger, or if permitted by any other written law.
Reproductive Health Act, 2014 section 20 provides that such an abortion can occur only with consent from the pregnant woman or parents or guardians if the woman is a minor or mentally unstable
If you want to have an abortion, it is highly important that it is carried out by certified professionals with required qualifications. Access to safe and affordable abortion, post-abortion services, and maternal health services can be obtained through various NGOs such as Marie Stopes.
To see more: http://www.mariestopes.org/
Abortion carried out by unqualified personnel in unsuitable environmental setups can have great risk of death arising from excessive blood loss, infection and retained debris. Other consequences include possibility of complications in subsequent pregnancies, psychological disturbance among others.
It is very dangerous to perform abortion on yourself or on others. There is great risk of death arising from excessive blood loss, infection and retained debris. Other consequences include possibility of complications in subsequent pregnancies and psychological disturbance among others. Performing abortions is safe when performed by qualified professionals only.
Ingestion of jik, high amounts of tea, soap or Omo can not cause abortion. Do not ingest any type of detergents, soaps or disinfectants – it is damaging for your health and will not cause abortion. Abortion is only safe when performed by professionals.
To prevent unintended pregnancy, the most effective measure is to practice safe sex or abstinence. Click here to read more.
If your pregnancy is unintended, make sure that you consider the different options. If you have someone you trust, consider talking to them about your situation.
If you consider having an abortion, Click here for further information.
Pregnancy (the gestation period) is the time when a foetus (baby) develops inside a woman’s uterus. A pregnancy usually lasts for nine months, between 38 to 42 weeks. A woman can get pregnant through vagnial intercourse with a man or through technologically assisted pregnancy.
Human beings reproduce by way of sexual reproduction through something called internal fertilisation. During vaginal intercourse, a man can insert his erect penis into the woman’s vagina, eventually causing the penis to ejaculate sperm. Sperm is expelled into the vagina where it moves across through the cervix and the uterus, to what is called the fallopian tube. A mature egg released during the female ovulation meets with a sperm cell at the fallopian tube and they fuse, a process called fertilisation. Only one sperm can fertilise a mature egg.
Once fertilised, the egg travels down into the uterus where it implants into the wall, a process
called implantation, and starts forming a placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta forms a
connection between the mother and the developing fetus via the umbilical cord. This is how the baby gets oxygen and nutrients for growth.
A normal pregnancy lasts between 38 to 42 weeks, and during this period the foetus forms
vital organs that are important for survival outside the womb.
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Signs and symptoms of pregnancy can vary, but common signs and symptoms include:
*Note: When girls first start menstruating, they often have irregular periods and may even skip a month or two at times. However, if a young girl has had sexual intercourse, missing a period can be a sign of pregnancy. Missed periods can also be indicative of various other conditions, e.g. stress, inadequate diet, extreme exercise and certain other medical conditions.
To find out if you’re pregnant, self pregnancy test kits are the most accurate to confirm pregnancy at home. These are readily available at local chemists at affordable prices. They are also available at all health centre and clinics. Their usability is simple, just requiring one to dip the stick in urine. They can detect pregnancy as early as 10 days after unprotected sex.
You can also get tested with a doctor.
If you have confirmed your pregnancy and intend to have the child, it is important that you prepare a healthy pregnancy in the early stages. In order to have a healthy pregnancy, you need to seek a doctor, midwife or clinic as soon as possible. It is important to follow qualified and professional advice on requirements for relevant nutrition and supplements, and exercise.
Intake of alcohol, drugs, chemicals and smoking cigarettes is very damaging for yourself and your child during pregnancy.
If you have not yet confirmed that you are pregnant, for further information.
If your pregnancy is unintended, for further information.
Menstruation begins when you start ovulating. Ovulating is when an egg is released from the woman’s ovary and moves into the fallopian tube and onwards to the uterus where it can be fertilized by the male sperm. If the egg is not fertilized, blood and tissue from the lining of the uterus will be rejected as menstruation. It usually starts between 10 and 15 years of age. Depending on the woman, menstruation happens every 25 to 35 days. Some women experience pain, which happens because the uterus is contracting. This is completely normal.
The inner female genitalia:
Don’t feel embarrassed to ask questions about your menstruation. It’s natural and something that all women have.
There are several ways to capture the blood from your menstruation. You can choose from materials that are inserted inside the vagina or placed in your underwear.
You can find an overview of menstrual hygiene materials .Link to “overview”